Water softening is an important process, because with it the hardness of the water in installations in
factories is reduced. Hard water can block pipes and prevent soap from dissolving, and softening can prevent these negative effects. Hard water also causes a high risk of deposits forming in domestic water systems. Due to the formation of these blockages, pipes become clogged and the efficiency of boilers and tanks is reduced. This increases the cost of domestic water heating by about 15-20%.
Water softeners are specific ion exchangers designed to remove positively charged ions: they mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions, often referred to as ‘hardness minerals.